Al-Furat Journal of Innovations in Agricultural Sciences <p><strong>Al-Furat Journal of Innovations in Agricultural Sciences (FJIAS) ISSN:2789-6773</strong> is open access, peer-reviewed, double-blinded international scientific journal published by Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University (ATU)/Republic of Iraq. The journal quarterly publishes original and high-quality scientific articles dedicated to highlighting the latest innovations in agricultural science and all its related sub-fields, including; Animal production, Plant production, Biological control, and soil &amp; water.</p> <p><strong>Since the 2022 academic year, the FJIAS Journal will release four Issues on the 1st March, June, September, and December. </strong></p> <p> </p> AL-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University en-US Al-Furat Journal of Innovations in Agricultural Sciences 2789-6773 <div id="deed-rights" class="row" dir="ltr"> <div class="col-sm-offset-2 col-sm-8"> <h3>You are free to:</h3> <ul class="license-properties"> <li class="license share"><strong>Share</strong> — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format</li> <li class="license remix"><strong>Adapt</strong> — remix, transform, and build upon the material</li> <li class="license remix">The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.</li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="row"> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-offset-1 col-md-10"><hr /></div> </div> <div id="deed-conditions" class="row"> <h3>Under the following terms:</h3> <ul class="license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8" dir="ltr"> <li class="license by"> <p><strong>Attribution</strong> — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.<span id="by-more-container"></span></p> </li> <li class="license nc"> <p><strong>NonCommercial</strong> — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.<span id="nc-more-container"></span></p> </li> <li class="license sa"> <p><strong>ShareAlike</strong> — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same licence as the original.<span id="sa-more-container"></span></p> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="row"> <ul id="deed-conditions-no-icons" class="col-md-offset-2 col-md-8"> <li class="license"><strong>No additional restrictions</strong> — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</li> </ul> </div> <div class="row"> </div> Inhibitory Activity of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Control The Pathogens of Cucumber Root Rot Disease in Babylon Province <p>The study aimed to identify the Cucumber Root Rot Diseases in some areas of Babylon Governorate, isolate and diagnose the pathogen. The evaluation of the efficacy of Azotobacter and Azospierillum in disease control under field conditions. The field survey results showed cucumber root rot disease in all areas covered by the survey, with infection rates ranging between 70-90% and severity from 30-68%. The isolation results showed the presence of 10 types of fungi associated with the infested roots of the cucumber plant. Fusarium Solani was the most frequent fungi. It appeared in most samples with varying frequency rates of 75.05%, followed by the fungi Macrophomina Phaseolina 68.75% and Rhizoctonia Solani with a frequency of 62.05%. The use of Azotobacter Chrococcum as a biological control agent inhibited the growth of the pathogen Rhizoctonia Solani (Rs-1) and Fusarium Solani (Fs-6) and Macrophomina Phaseolina (Mp-2) in the PDA medium. With a high inhibition rate. The field experiment results showed that the agents used might significantly reduce the adverse effects of the pathogenic fungi. They also provided good protection for cucumber plants from infection with root rot pathogens, with significant differences from pathogenic fungi alone, whose infection rate was 100% and intensity was between 87.67 - 95.67% in the interaction treatment. Chroococcum and Azospirillum Brasiliense were superior in reducing infection incidence and severity with cucumber root rot pathogens under field conditions. It provided good protection from infection so that the disease incidence was between 22.00-27.00% and the infection severity 20.00-21.33%. All the treatments significantly increased the studied cucumber plant growth parameters, increasing plant height, fresh and dry weight, leaf area, and yield weight. Azospirillum and Azotobacter alone and without adding the pathogen to improving plant growth parameters and increasing the yield weight. The interaction treatment between the two types of bacteria surpassed the highest rate of 36.04 kg compared to the control treatment and without any addition, as the yield weight reached 20.12 kgs.</p> Zahraa Imad Hamza Al Amidi Ahed Abd Ali Hadi Matloob Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Furat Journal of Innovations in Agricultural Sciences 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 1 2 1 10 Evaluating The Efficacy of Azotobacter chroococcum Against The Pathogens of Okra Root Rot Disease in Babylon Province <p>The field survey results revealed the spread of okra root rot disease in all surveyed areas. The results of isolation and diagnosis showed the presence of 6 fungal isolates associated with the roots of okra plants, differing in appearance in different regions. As Fusarium solani achieved the highest percentage of occurrence, it appeared in all samples with 80%, followed by Macrophomina phaseolina with an appearance of 44%, and Rhizoctonia solani recorded 21%. The results for pathogenicity showed that all tested fungi caused a significant reduction in the germination rate of radish seeds. The results indicated the effect of Fusarium. spp (FA3, FK2, FA1, FR1, FD2, FC1) and M.phaseolina (MB1, ME1) and R.solani (RR1) on germination of okra seeds. In infection of okra plants, the percentage of infection severity reached (88.3, 85)%, compared to the control treatment, which was 0%. The study showed that Azotobacter chroococcum has a high antagonistic capacity against the pathogenic fungi FA3 and ME1, and the inhibition rate varied according to the concentration or dilution used. The lath house results showed that A. chroococcum was controlled by the pathogen F.solani and M.phaseolina fungi. The severity of infection reached (31.66 and 28.33)%, respectively, compared to the treatment of pathogenic fungi alone, which amounted to (77.52 and 83.44%) respectively. The treatment of infection between bacteria and pathogenic fungi in the field experiment also achieved control in the severity of the disease and an increase in growth parameters measured, compared to the treatment of pathogenic fungi alone.</p> Caesar Hamza Al-Taie Ahmad Kadhim Abdul–Hdi Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Furat Journal of Innovations in Agricultural Sciences 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 1 2 11 20 Effect of Physiographic Unit on Sand Mineral Distribution in Different Regions From Mesopotamia Plain <p>A field study was carried out in the year 2019 </p> Harith H. Kareem Hameed K. Abdul-Ameer Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Furat Journal of Innovations in Agricultural Sciences 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 1 2 21 31 Effect of Spraying with Proline on Two Cultivars of Potato Under Salt Stress <p>During the fall season on September 15, 2019, the experiment was carried out on one of the farms belonging to a farmer in the Al-Tahmaziya area, the Hilla city, Babylon province. This experiment included a study of the effect of four concentrations of NaCl (without addition, 4, 8,10 dsm<sup>-1</sup>) and proline spraying at a concentration of (0, 200, 250 ppm) on two potato cultivars(Burren and Riviera). The experiment was conducted according to the Split split-plot design with three replicates, where the main plot occupied the cultivars. As for the proline subplot, the sub-sub- the plot was occupied by NaCl, and the results were The cultivars showed significant differences between them in effect on the studied traits, where the Burren cultivar was significantly excelled and gave the highest values for the traits of the number of tubers 7.63 tubers.plant <sup>-1</sup>, the fresh weight of the tubers was 601.25 g, while the Riviera cultivar excelled and gave the highest values for root length traits 40.75 cm, leaf sodium, and a chloride content (3.87 and 3.43%), respectively. The treatment of proline spraying with a concentration of 250 ppm was significantly excelled and gave the highest values of root length traits 40.06 cm, the number of tubers 8.61 tubers. Plant <sup>-1</sup>, while the concentration 200 ppm significantly excelled and gave the highest value of the fresh weight of tubers, amounted to 680.53 g. The results of the experiment also showed that adding sodium chloride to irrigation water harmed the root growth traits and the quantitative and qualitative traits, especially the concentration of 10 dsm<sup>-1</sup>, where it gave the lowest values for most of the studied traits in comparison with the control treatment that gave the highest values. The triple interaction treatment consisting of (Burren cultivar + proline spraying at a concentration of 250 ppm + 4 dsm <sup>-1</sup>) was significantly excelled and gave the highest value in the quality of the number of tubers 11.90 tubers.plant<sup>-1</sup>, and the treatment of (Burren + Proline spraying at a concentration of 250 ppm + 4 dsm <sup>-1</sup>) was significantly excelled and gave the highest value for the fresh weight of tuber 846.10 g<strong>.</strong></p> Haneen Adil Abdulnabi Ali Hassan Ali Al-Zubaidi Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Furat Journal of Innovations in Agricultural Sciences 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 1 2 31 43 Effect of Presence and Absence of Corpus Luteum on Ovarian Dimensions, Follicular Numbers and Quality of Oocytes in Iraqi Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Ali Abd Al-Mohsen Al-Talbee Hashim M. Al-Rubaei Copyright (c) 2021 Al-Furat Journal of Innovations in Agricultural Sciences 2021-10-18 2021-10-18 1 2 44 50